Hepatic Encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs in animals and people with advanced liver disease. In dogs, it is most often seen when blood is diverted or shunted around the liver, called portosystemic shunting. Blood can be diverted around the liver because of a congenital shunt present at birth or an acquired shunt that occurs secondary to long-term liver disease.
Hepatic Encephalopathy is often manifested as a wide range of neurologic abnormalities. The first signs are usually behavioral. At first, the changes are subtle, and they may wax and wane. As the disorder progresses, the signs become more obvious. Signs may be precipitated by a meal. As the syndrome becomes more apparent, dogs usually has a few bad days, alternating with days in which the dog is acting fairly normal.